Determination and evaluation of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations and metal levels in thermal waters from Ankara, Turkey
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The gross α and β activity concentrations in the thermal waters of Karakaya-Aya¸s, ˙I¸cmece-Aya¸s, Beypazarı (Dutluk-Tahtalı), Haymana, and Kızılcahamam spas in Ankara Province were measured by MPC-9604 multi-detector α/β counting system. Ranges of activity concentrations found were from 0.09 to 2.58 Bq L −1 for gross α and from 0.25 to 2.61 Bq L −1 for gross β . The ranges of minimum detectable concentrations for gross α (0.05–0.41 Bq L −1) and for gross β (0.04–0.29 Bq L −1) were obtained. Gross α and β activity concentrations found in samples were compared with the recommended guidelines of the World Health Organization and the Turkish Standards, and literature values. Na, K, Ca, Si, Mn, Ce, Te, Nd, Sm, Cs, W, La, U, and Th metal levels in these thermal ground waters were also determined by using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF).