Determination of apoptosis and cell cycle modulators (p16, p21, p27, p53, BCL-2, Bax, BCL-xL, and cyclin D1) in thyroid follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and adenomatous nodules via a tissue microarray method
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Background/aim: To identify the role of gene products associated with apoptosis and cell cycle in the pathogenesis of thyroid follicular neoplasm. Materials and methods: Thirty follicular adenomas (FAs), 16 follicular carcinomas (FCs), and 20 adenomatous nodules (ANs) were investigated with immunohistochemical staining of p16, p21, p27, p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and cyclin D1 via a tissue microarray method. Results: Bcl-2 showed a significant difference between the benign groups (AN and FA) and the malignant group (FC). Bax was significantly higher in the FC group. p53 was lowest in the AN group and highest in the FC group with significant differences between the groups. p16 was significantly higher in the FC group than in the other groups. There was a significant difference between the AN group and neoplastic lesions in terms of p21 staining. The number of cases with positive p27 was lower in the AN group than the neoplastic groups. There was no significant difference in terms of Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Conclusion: Cell cycle modulators, led by the Bcl-2 family, played an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid follicular neoplasm, and p53, p16, and p21 in particular played a role in the carcinogenesis of FC.